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1. How did the Crusader States survive and grow in the decades following the First Crusade?
About this Lecture
In this module, we think about how the Crusader States managed to thrive and grow following the First Crusade, focusing in particular on: (i) the main secondary studies on this period, including Thomas Asbridge's The Crusades: The War for the Holy Land (2010) and Malcolm Barber's The Crusader States (2012); (ii) the importance of the coastal cities that were conquered shortly after the First Crusade, including: their importance in the delivery of supplies and resources from Western Europe; the power and wealth of these cities in their own right; the very high fertility of the Levantine coast; (iii) the willingness of many local groups to ally with the crusaders, including the Armenians in the north and various Bedouin groups in the south; (iv) the lack of resistance offered by the Turks, particularly following the death of Malik-Shah I (1092) and the in-fighting amongst the Turks that followed; (v) the extent to which the Byzantine Empire supported the Crusader States; (vi) the effectiveness of the crusaders' battle tactics even when they were massively outnumbered; and (vii) the various primary sources that can help us answer this question, including the accounts of Fulcher of Chartres, Albert of Aachen, William of Tyre, Anna Komnene, Matthew of Edessa, Ibn al-Qalanisi, Ibn al-Athir, and the various accounts of pilgrims who travelled to Jerusalem after the conquest of the city in 1099.
– Thomas Asbridge, The Crusades: The War for the Holy Land (2010)
– Malcolm Barber, The Crusader States (2012)
– Nicholas Morton, The Field of Blood: The Battle for Aleppo and the Remaking of the Medieval Middle East (2018)
– Jonathan Harris, Byzantium and the Crusades (2nd Ed.) (2003)
– Malcolm Barber and Keith Bate, Letters from the East: Crusaders, Pilgrims and Settlers in the 12th–13th Centuries (2013)
In this course, Dr Nicholas Morton (Nottingham Trent University) considers four questions related the Second Crusade, 1147-49: (i) How did the Crusader States survive and grow in the decades following the First Crusade?; (ii) Why did the Second Crusade fail?; (iii) Why did the Turkish resistance to the Crusaders intensify during the Twelfth Century?; (iv) How committed was Saladin to Jihad against the Franks during the years 1169-1187? In each module, we outline some potential approaches to the question, as well as considering the sources that are available that might help us answer the question.
Dr Nicholas Morton is a specialist in the history of crusading and the Medieval Mediterranean between the tenth and thirteenth centuries. More recently he has begun to focus specifically upon the theme of inter-faith relations between Christianity and Islam in this region. He has published extensively on topics connected to this subject area, writing a range of monographs and scholarly articles. He is also an editor for the Ashgate series Rulers of the Latin East.
Currently Dr Morton is completing a monograph exploring the First Crusaders' attitudes and behaviour towards the various non-Christian peoples they encountered during their campaign. This will be a highly revisionist work addressing many key scholarly and public orthodoxies surrounding the nature of Christian/Islamic interaction during the crusade.
Cite this Lecture
Morton, N. (2018, August 21). The Second Crusade, 1147-49: Essay Questions - How did the Crusader States survive and grow in the decades following the First Crusade? [Video]. MASSOLIT. https://massolit.io/courses/the-second-crusade-1147-49-essay-questions/how-did-the-crusader-states-survive-and-grow-in-the-decades-following-the-first-crusade
Morton, N. "The Second Crusade, 1147-49: Essay Questions – How did the Crusader States survive and grow in the decades following the First Crusade?." MASSOLIT, uploaded by MASSOLIT, 21 Aug 2018, https://massolit.io/courses/the-second-crusade-1147-49-essay-questions/how-did-the-crusader-states-survive-and-grow-in-the-decades-following-the-first-crusade