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Germany – Persecution and the Holocaust, 1933-45

4. Third Phase, 1942-45

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In this module, we look at the third phase of Nazi persecution in the period 1942 to 1945. In particular, we will focus on: (i) the summer months of 1941 where the the Nazis switched from mass killings to genocide; (ii) the mass killings throughout Eastern Europe also known as the “Holocaust by bullets”, including the Babi War Massacre, the Ponary Massacre, the Liepāja Massacres, and the Rumbula Massacre; (iii) the involvement of locals in the Holocaust by bullets; (iv) the switch from using bullets as a killing method to using gas; (v) the change in persecution policies in the Reich from 1941, including deportations of Jewish prisoners to the East; (vi) the setting up of designated death camps, including Chełmno, Bełżec, Sobibór and Treblinka; (vii) the setting up of Auschwitz-Birkenau and why it continues to be the most visual reminder of the Holocaust today; (viii) who was involved in the killing? And what did people know about the Death Camps at the time?; (ix) the question of resistance, rescue and survival in the Death Camps, including the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising of 1943; and (x) the final phase of the Holocaust and the Death Marches from 1944 to 1945.


In this course, Professor Mary Fulbrook (UCL) examines Nazi Persecution and the Holocaust from 1933 to 1945. In the first module, we look at some of the key historical debates that historians have tackled in relation to Nazi persecution and the Holocaust. After this, we look at the first phase of Nazi persecution from 1933 to 1937. From then, we look at the second phase of Nazi persecution in the period 1938 to 1941. The penultimate module, looks at the third and final phase of Nazi persecution in the period 1942 to 1945. The final module, looks at the impact of Nazi persecution in the years after the war.


Mary Fulbrook is Professor of German History at University College London (UCL). She specialises religion and society in early modern Europe, the German dictatorships of the twentieth century, Europe during and after the Holocaust, and historiography and social theory. Her work has included A Small Town Near Auschwitz: Ordinary Nazis and the Holocaust (Oxford 2012), and Reckonings: Legacies of Nazi Persecution and the Quest for Justice (Oxford 2018) which won the 2019 Wolfson History Prize and was a finalist for the 2019 Cundill Prize.

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APA style

Fulbrook, M. (2022, July 04). Germany – Persecution and the Holocaust, 1933-45 - Third Phase, 1942-45 [Video]. MASSOLIT.

MLA style

Fulbrook, M. "Germany – Persecution and the Holocaust, 1933-45 – Third Phase, 1942-45." MASSOLIT, uploaded by MASSOLIT, 04 Jul 2022,

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