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Miracles – Philosophical Perspectives

4. Diversity of Religions and Multiple Witnesses

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In this module, we analyse the diversity of religions and multiple witnesses in relation to testimony to miracles. In particular, we focus on (i) Hume’s argument for conflicting testimony in all cases concerning divergent religions (ii) objections to Hume’s argument from the diversity of religions based on conversion experiences and diverse manifestations of divine revelation (iii) forensic cases which call into question the reliability of testimony (iv) Charles Babbage’s argument for evidence of testimony based on independent witnesses.


In this course Dr Arif Ahmed (University of Cambridge) explores philosophical perspectives on miracles, with special reference to David Hume. In the first module we look at different ideas about the nature of a miracle, and introduce Hume’s argument. After that, in the second module we examine Hume’s famous argument against witness testimony as evidence for miracles. In the third module, we evaluate some objections to Hume’s argument and explore Hume’s case for the likelihood of miracle stories. In the fourth module we examine the impact of divergent religions and multiple witnesses on Hume’s account of testimony. In the fifth module, we look at responses to the independent witness argument; before turning to Maurice Wiles’ take on miracles and deism in the sixth lecture. In the seventh and final lecture, we investigate further philosophical problems concerning our understanding of what constitutes a law of nature, as well as the miracles in relation to free will and fideism.


Dr Arif Ahmed is Reader in Philosophy at the University of Cambridge. He writes mainly on decision theory, but also has an interest in religion and has debated the subject against William Lane Craig, Tariq Ramadan, Rowan Williams and others. Some of his recent publications include (as editor) Wittgenstein's Philosophical Investigations: A Critical Guide (2010), Evidence, Decision and Causality (2014) and (as editor) Classical Philosophical Arguments: Newcomb's Problem (2018).

Cite this Lecture

APA style

Ahmed, A. (2022, April 21). Miracles – Philosophical Perspectives - Diversity of Religions and Multiple Witnesses [Video]. MASSOLIT.

MLA style

Ahmed, Arif. "Miracles – Philosophical Perspectives – Diversity of Religions and Multiple Witnesses." MASSOLIT, uploaded by MASSOLIT, 21 Apr 2022,

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