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Human Immune System

3. T and B Cells

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About this Lecture


In the third mini-lecture, we focus on T and B cells, the main effectors of the adaptive immune system. To begin with, we look at two different types of T cells: CD8+ (cytotoxic or killer) and CD4+ (helper) T cells. We learn about how CD8+ cells can bind to MHC-I proteins on APCs in the presence of an antigen, and how it can trigger cell death (apoptosis). In addition, we learn about their ability to attack some cancerous cells. To continue, we also look take a short look at CD4+ ‘helper’ T-cells, how they are activated and then trigger an immune response, and the other functions it has, such as stimulating B cells to release antibodies or activating other killer T-cells and macrophages. In the second part of this mini-lecture, we look at B-cells and their responsibility in the humoral response. We talk about their ability to release antibodies, and then introduce the importance of antibodies in fighting infections the body has already come across.


In this lecture, Dr Matthew Ivory (Cardiff University) introduces the human immune system, and some of the tools the body has at its disposal to fight off infections. To begin, we: (i) discuss the passive barriers and innate immune system; before (ii) focusing on the adaptive immune system and how its response differs from the innate immune system; and then delving into T- and B-cells, specifically cytotoxic and helper T-cells, and antibodies and their associated B-cells; following onto (iv) antibodies more specifically and understanding how they have such specificity for an antigen and the different mechanisms they can use to fight pathogens; before finally (v) understanding how monoclonal antibodies have widespread use in medicine and in science, such as in diagnosis, cell signalling, radiolabelling, ELISA tests, and immunofluorescence.


Dr Matthew Ivory is a Lecturer at Cardiff University in the School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences (2016-present). His key expertise is in ex vivo human skin organ culture and histology, human skin immune cell extraction and culture, flow cytometry and pharmaceutical formulation, and his research interests are in the delivery of vaccines and therapeutics into the skin. In addition to this, he is also a qualified pharmacist.

Cite this Lecture

APA style

Ivory, M. (2022, August 30). Human Immune System - T and B Cells [Video]. MASSOLIT.

MLA style

Ivory, M. "Human Immune System – T and B Cells." MASSOLIT, uploaded by MASSOLIT, 30 Aug 2022,