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Gender – Gender Development

2. Atypical Hormone Patterns

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About this Lecture


In this lecture, we think about hormones, chromosomes and atypical hormone patterns, focusing in particular on: (i) females having an XX genotype and males having an XY genotype; (ii) the function of hormones, particularly testosterone, in deciding whether a foetus will develop as female or male; (iii) the role of oestrogen in triggering the development of the female reproductive system, and regulating the menstrual cycle later in life; (iv) the role of oxytocin in developing a sense of caring and intimacy; (v) some of the problems with reducing gender to only hormonal considerations, such as the overmedicalisation of female anger by categorising it as pre-menstrual syndrome; (vi) a comparison of Klinefelter and Turner syndrome, affecting biological males and females respectively.


In this course, Dr Christine McKnight (Cardiff Metropolitan University) explores gender development and dysphoria. In the first lecture, we think about sex, gender, and androgyny, as well as gender stereotypes. In the second lecture, we think about the roles of hormones and chromosomes, and the consequences of atypical hormone patterns. In the third lecture, we think about cognitive and psychodynamic explanations of gender, including theories from Piaget, Kohlberg, and Freud. Next, we think about the role of social learning theory in gender development. In the fifth and final lecture, we think about atypical gender, including the links between gender dysphoria and non-binary gender identities.


Dr Christine McKnight is a sexual health outreach worker at Aneurin Bevan University Health Board and lecturer and Cardiff Metropolitan University. Dr McKnight works in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology and has research interests in fields such as contraceptive taking behaviour and its effects on health. One of Dr McKnight’s recent publications is 'Models of health behaviour predict intention to use long-acting reversible contraception' (2016).

Cite this Lecture

APA style

McKnight, C. (2022, May 19). Gender – Gender Development - Atypical Hormone Patterns [Video]. MASSOLIT.

MLA style

McKnight, C. "Gender – Gender Development – Atypical Hormone Patterns." MASSOLIT, uploaded by MASSOLIT, 19 May 2022,

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