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# Introduction to Probability

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In this mini-lecture, we give an introduction to probability. We think about: (i) the definition of probability: the study of randomness and chance; (ii) applications of probability in machine learning, biology, statistics, and physics; (iii) a motivating example from genetics where we see how probability can be used to predict alleles of offspring; (iv) how probability is used to estimate or calculate the likelihood of an event occurring; (v) examples of calculating probability and their corresponding chances using a sliding scale: flipping a fair coin, rolling a fair six-sided die; (vi) the equation describing the probability of an outcome: probability of an outcome (event) = number of ways the outcome occurs / the number of possible outcomes; (vii) the notation used to describe the probability of an event: P[Event]; (viii) examples of calculating probabilities; and (ix) a non-examinable remark on probability from two philosophical perspectives: the approach made by ‘Frequentists’ and the approach made by ‘Subjectives/Bayesians.’